What Are Supply and Demand?
Supply and demand are two of the most fundamental concepts in economics. Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing to provide at any given price, while demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing to purchase at any given price. The relationship between supply and demand determines how much of a product will be produced, what prices it will sell for, and how many people can buy it. When there is an imbalance between supply and demand, either too little or too much of a product may be available on the market.
The interaction between supply and demand affects all aspects of economic life from production decisions by businesses to consumer spending habits. For example, when there is high consumer demand for a certain item but limited supplies available on the market, prices tend to rise as suppliers try to capitalize on this increased interest in their products. On the other hand, if there is low consumer interest in an item but plenty of supplies available on the market then prices tend to fall as suppliers compete with each other for sales. Understanding these dynamics helps economists better understand why markets behave they way they do over time which can help inform policy decisions related to taxation rates or government subsidies among others things.